ut iam nulla tibi nos sit legisse uoluptas, Later he did considerable public service there, and otherwise devoted himself to poetry and to society. Dido Aeneae. Charles Simmons, The Metamorphoses of Ovid, Books XIII and XIV, 13.507 Cross-references to this page (2): P. Ovidius Naso, Art of Love, Remedy of Love, Art of Beauty, Court of Love, History of Love, Amours , A Note on the Translations HEROIDES EPISTLES 11 - 15, TRANSLATED BY GRANT SHOWERMAN XI. For fuller discussion see D. S. Raven, Latin Metre: an Introduction (Cambridge, 1965). Books and high society were lacking; little Latin was spoken; and the climate was severe. With Ovid's word as the only viable evidence on the matter, the existence of a second edition of the Amores is widely regarded as potentially questionable (cf. The Nymph sends words you ordered her to write. Hypsipyle of Lemnos, born of the people of Bacchus. , Classics scholar W. M. Spackman argues the Heroides influenced the development of the European novel: of Helen's reply to Paris, Spackman writes, "its mere 268 lines contain in embryo everything that has, since, developed into the novel of dissected motivations that is one of our glories, from La Princesse de Clèves, Manon Lescaut and Les Liaisons Dangereuses to Stendhal and Proust".. The Heroides (The Heroines), or Epistulae Heroidum (Letters of Heroines), are a collection of fifteen epistolary poems composed by Ovid in Latin elegiac couplets, and presented as though written by a selection of aggrieved heroines of Greek and Roman mythology, in address to their heroic lovers who have in some way mistreated, neglected, or abandoned them. The Dickinson Summer Latin Workshop will move online this year due to the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath. [completed by L.C. Later translations and creative responses to the Heroides include Jean Lemaire de Belges's Premiere Epître de l'Amant vert (1505), Fausto Andrelini's verse epistles (1509–1511; written in the name of Anne de Bretagne), Michel d'Amboise's [fr] Contrepistres d'Ovide (1546), and Juan Rodríguez de la Cámara's Bursario, a partial translation of the Heroides. aut quod Penelopes verbis reddatur Ulixi, the arguments of, e.g. The quotations highlighted are the opening couplets of each poem, by which each would have been identified in medieval manuscripts of the collection: The Heroides were popularized by the Loire valley poet Baudri of Bourgueil in the late eleventh century, and Héloïse used them as models in her famous letters to Peter Abelard. The single Heroides are written from the viewpoints of the following heroines (and heroes). Purser (ed.)] Famous at first, he offended the emperor Augustus by his Ars Amatoria, and was banished because of this work and some other reason unknown to us, and dwelt in the cold and primitive town of Tomis on the Black Sea. also, on. The paired letters of the Double Heroides are not outlined here: see the relevant section of that article for the double epistles (16–21). Even now, left to the wild beasts, she might live, cruel Theseus. See esp. Dickinson Latin Workshop: Ovid’s Heroides July 16–20, 2020. Ovid's Heroides, a collection of twenty-one epistles in elegiac verse, consists of two groups, the first comprising fourteen poems addressed by heroines of mythology to their absent lovers or husbands. Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso, 43 BCE 17 CE), born at Sulmo, studied rhetoric and law at Rome. Written thoughout in elegant elegiac couplets. Heroides – Ovid – Ancient Rome – Classical Literature. Verg. Selections from Ovid's Metamorphoses: Baucis and Philemon/Acis, Galatea, and Polyphemus/Narcissus and Echo/Pentheus (Longman Latin Reader) Ovid $8.79. Ovid’s first work, the Amores (The Loves), had an immediate success and was followed, in rapid succession, by the Epistolae Heroidum, or Heroides (Epistles of the Heroines), the Medicamina faciei (“Cosmetics”; Eng.  A translation, Les Vingt et Une Epistres d'Ovide, was made of this work at the end of the 15th century by the French poet Octavien de Saint-Gelais, who later became Bishop of Angoulême. CANACE TO MACAREUS  If aught of what I write is yet blotted deep and escapes your eye, ‘twill be because the little roll has been stained by its mistress’ blood. These epistolary poems are written in Latin elegiac couplets (demonstrated here and in depth here), which is a type of meter used in poetry. For a fuller overview of the authenticity debate than can be offered here, see, among others, Lachmann (1876), Palmer (1898), Courtney (1965) and (1998), Anderson (1973), Reeve (1973), Jacobson (1974), Tarrant (1981), Knox (1986), (1995, esp. Prosody. A further set of six poems, widely known as the Double Heroidesand numbered 16 to 21 in modern scholarly editions, follows these individual letters and prese… The Heroides take the form of letters addressed by famous mythological characters to their partners expressing their emotions at being separated from them, pleas for their return, and allusions to … Perhaps the most successful of these were the Quatre Epistres d'Ovide (c. 1500) by André de La Vigne [fr], a friend and colleague of Saint-Gelais. The Heroides is a collection of 21 poems in elegiac couplets. Holzberg ). Ovid's Heroides by itself deserves four stars, and one off for this translation.  This assertion has been widely persuasive, and the tendency amongst scholarly readings of the later 1990s and following has been towards careful and insightful literary explication of individual letters, either proceeding under the assumption of, or with an eye towards proving, Ovidian authorship. ‘vir’, ‘virago’, ‘virgo’, ‘virtus’, ‘vis’. (1995) "Ovidio e l'ideologia augustea: I motivi delle, Courtney, E. (1965) "Ovidian and Non-Ovidian, ___. Letter XI: Canace to Macareus: Canace, daughter of Aeolus (the god of the winds) pathetically represents her case to her lover and brother Macareus, whose son she had borne, inveighing against her father’s cruel command that she take her own life as punishment for her immorality. As an example following these lines, for some time scholars debated over whether this passage from the Amores—corroborating, as it does, only the existence of Her. at levior demptis poena duobus erit, We who were (not so long ago) the five little books of Naso Portrait of Penelope, extracted from Ovid’s Heroides , c. 1500 This your Penelope sends to you, too-slow Ulysses; I, your hostess, Demophoon—I, your Phyllis of Rhodope—. " In spite of various interpretations of Propertius 4.3, consensus nevertheless concedes to Ovid the lion's share of the credit in the thorough exploration of what was then a highly innovative poetic form. Ovid] originated this sort of composition"). Lingenberg (2003) regards the single letters as a coherently structured work by one author, published some years after Ovid's death at latest and believed to be authentic Ovid already by. Latin version with word-by-word translation (Perseus Project): Passer, deliciae meae puellae (Catullus 2), Vivamus, mea Lesbia, atque amemus (Catullus 5), Miser Catulle, desinas ineptire (Catullus 8), http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text.jsp?doc=Perseus:text:1999.02.0085:poem=1. – 17 A.D.) METAMORPHOSES. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text.jsp?doc=Perseus:text:1999.02.0068:text=Ep. Holzberg, N. (1997) "Playing with his Life: Ovid's 'Autobiographical' References", This page was last edited on 13 November 2020, at 14:42.  Discussion of these issues has been a focus, even if tangentially, of many treatments of the Heroides in recent memory. Ovid arrived at his place of exile in the spring of 9 ce. Hinds, S. (1993) "Medea in Ovid: Scenes from the Life of an Intertextual Heroine", ___.  From stolen Briseis is the writing you read, scarce charactered in Greek … (1998) Heroides I w/ Notes & Comm. The double poems were probably composed later, and the collection as a whole was not published until until somewhere between 5 BCE and 8 CE. The only collection of Heroides attested by O[vid] therefore antedates at least the second edition of the Amores (c. 2 BC), and probably the first (c. 16 BC) ..." On this view, the most probable date of composition for at least the majority of the collection of single Heroides ranges between c. 25 and 16 BC, if indeed their eventual publication predated that of the assumed first edition of the Amores in that latter year. Ovid: Heroides I Introduction and Latin Text, with Greek Translation by Maximus Planudes edited by Arthur Palmer and Duncan F. Kennedy. P. OVIDIVS NASO (43 B.C. denique, quisquis erat castris iugulatus Achivis, frigidius glacie pectus amantis erat. In addition, there are three pairs of double letters (Nos. Isbell's translation uses unrhymed couplets that generally alternate between eleven and nine syllables. Barchiesi, A. Yvonne LeBlanc, "Queen Anne in the Lonely, Tear-Soaked Bed of Penelope: Rewriting the, "Review of: Ovid's Heroides: Select Epistles", "15 Heroines: The Labyrinth review – defiant women rise up from the myths | Theatre | The Guardian", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Heroides&oldid=988491981, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Ovid $4.19 - $9.79.  Exact dating is hindered not only by a lack of evidence, but by the fact that much of what is known at all comes from Ovid's own poetry. He also provides (p. 6, n. 9) a cautionary note, with references, on the use of modern terminology such as, Like many other aspects of Ovidian studies, what is known about the publication of multiple editions of the. 4.  Arguably some of Ovid's most influential works (see below), one point that has greatly contributed to their mystique—and to the reverberations they have produced within the writings of later generations—is directly attributable to Ovid himself. I Penelope to Ulysses II Phyllis to Demophoon III Briseis to Achilles IV Phaedra to Hippolytus V Oenone to Paris VI Hypsipyle to Jason VII Dido to Aeneas Heroides VIII-XV. P. OVIDI NASONIS EPISTVLAE HEROIDVM VII. Kennedy (1984) and Hinds (1999). This is the first intermediate-student edition of a selection from Ovid's Heroides.Heroides VI, lines 1–100 and 127–64, and Heroides X, lines 1–76 and 119–50 are included as Latin text with an accompanying commentary and vocabulary.Focusing on a deliberately limited number of poems, this edition is designed to be manageable for students reading … Letter XIII: Laodamia to Protesilaus: Laodamia, wife of the Greek general Protesilaus, endeavours to dissuade him from engaging in the Trojan War and particularly warns him against being the first Greek to set foot on Trojan ground lest he suffer the prophecies of an oracle. (ed.) sive Menoetiaden falsis cecidisse sub armis, flebam successu posse carere dolos. Letter XXI: Cydippe to Acontius: In response, Cydippe claims that Acontius had ensnared her by artifice, although she gradually softens to a compliance and ends with a wish that their marriage may be consummated without delay. Tarrant, R. J.  Joseph Farrell identifies three distinct issues of importance to the collection in this regard: (1) individual interpolations within single poems, (2) the authorship of entire poems by a possible Ovidian impersonator, and (3) the relation of the Double Heroides to the singles, coupled with the authenticity of that secondary collection. Author: Paul Murgatroyd Publisher: Taylor & Francis ISBN: 1351758942 Size: 46.47 MB Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi View: 812 Get Books This volume offers up-to-date translations of all 21 epistles of Ovid’s Heroides. the introduction), and (2002), Kennedy (2002), and Lingenberg (2003). The Loeb Classical Library presents the Heroides with Amores in Ovid I. Penguin Books first published Harold Isbell's translation in 1990. The full extent of Ovid's originality in this matter has been a point of scholarly contention: E. J. Kenney, for instance, notes that "novavit is ambiguous: either 'invented' or 'renewed', cunningly obscuring without explicitly disclaiming O[vid]'s debt to Propertius' Arethusa (4.3) for the original idea. scribimus et lacrimas, Phylli relicta, tuas. Ovid $14.19 - $33.11. Acontius writes to Cydippe, claiming that the fever was sent by Diana as a punishment of the breach of the vow Cydippe had made to him in Diana’s temple.Letter XXI: Cydippe to Acontius: In response, Cydippe claims that Acontius had ensnared her by artifice, although she gradually softens to a compliance and ends with a wish that their marriage may be consummated without delay. This trend is visible especially in the most recent monographs on the Heroides. Since the Amores may well be among the first Latin poems a student encounters, it may be helpful to provide a brief introduction to the rules of Latin prosody (the quantity of individual syllables) and to the reading aloud of elegiac couplets. Pygmalion: and Related Readings. For references specifically relating to that subject, please see the relevant bibliography of the Double Heroides. Heroides (Heroines) I n this collection of elegiac couplets, Ovid represents letters from famous women in mythology, writing to their husbands and lovers about the things they experienced. They are among the few classical depictions of heterosexual love from the female perspective and, although their apparent uniformity of plot has been interpreted as encouraging a tragic female stereotype, each letter gives a unique and unprecedented perspective into its respective story at a crucial point in time. Amores. Might say, and so too †that woman of Lesbos, beloved of the Aonian lyre.†. (Classical Association of New England), Arena, A. Ovid is today best known for his grand epic, Metamorphoses, and elegiac works like the Ars Amatoria and Heroides. dicat et †Aoniae Lesbis amata lyrae.†, I do what I may—either profess the arts of tender love Letter XVIII: Leander to Hero: Leander, who lives across the Hellespont Sea from his illicit lover Hero and regularly swims across to meet her, complains that a storm is preventing him from joining her, but vows to brave even the bad storm rather than be deprived of her company for much longer. 1–2, 4–7, 10–11, and very possibly of 12, 13, and 15—could be cited fairly as evidence for the inauthenticity of at least the letters of Briseis (3), Hermione (8), Deianira (9), and Hypermnestra (14), if not also those of Medea (12), Laodamia (13), and Sappho (15). Tomis was a semi-Hellenized port exposed to periodic attacks by surrounding peoples. That which Paris and Macareus, and that also which oh-so-ungrateful Jason, It was the inspiration for 15 monologues starring 15 separate actors, by 15 playwrights at the Jermyn Street Theatre in 2020.. I'm beset by my own teachings!) (1998) "Echtheitskritik: Ovidian and Non-Ovidian, Heinze, T. (1991–93) "The Authenticity of Ovid, Palmer, A. The poems (or letters) are presented as though written by a selection of aggrieved heroines of Greek and Roman mythology to their heroic lovers who have in … While Saint-Gelais' translation does not do full justice to the original, it introduced many non-Latin readers to Ovid's fictional letters and inspired many of them to compose their own Heroidean-style epistles. “Heroides” (“The Heroines”), also known as “Epistulae Heroidum” (“Letters of Heroines”) or simply “Epistulae”, is a collection of fifteen epistolary poems (poems in the form of letters) by the Roman lyric poet Ovid, published between 5 BCE and 8 CE. In his solitude and depression, Ovid turned again to poetry, now of a more personal and introspective sort. sanguine Tlepolemus Lyciam tepefecerat hastam; 20 Tlepolemi leto cura novata mea est. with an English translation) and Goold, G. P. (2nd edition revised) (1986), Roebuck, L. T. Ovid. Questions of authenticity, however, have often inhibited the literary appreciation of these poems. (1994) "Fantasy, Myth, and Love Letters: Text and Tale in Ovid's, Steinmetz, P. (1987) "Die literarische Form der, Stroh, W. (1991) "Heroides Ovidianae cur epistolas scribant", in G. Papponetti (ed.). Rosati, G. (1991) "Protesilao, Paride, e l'amante elegiaco: un modello omerico in Ovidio", Vessey, D. W. T. (1976) "Humor and Humanity in Ovid's, Viarre, S. (1987) "Des poèmes d'Homère aux. Hippolytique parens Hippolytusque legant, And your tearful tale too, forsaken Phyllis—, And Hippolytus's sire, and Hippolytus himself may read—, Might say, and so too †that woman of Lesbos, beloved of the Aonian lyre.†, The reader is to understand that the letters, Knox (1995) 6. The Introduction also includes a general account of Ovid's career and the place of the Heroides in the development of Augustan poetry. BRISEIS TO ACHILLES. Mainly because I just really dislike when Latin poetry gets translated into rhyming verse. Books XVI to XXI The words you read come from stolen Briseis, an alien who has learned some Greek. tres sumus; hoc illi praetulit auctor opus. The poems (or letters) are presented as though written by a selection of aggrieved heroines of Greek and Roman mythology to their heroic lovers who have in some way mistreated, neglected or abandoned them. Other sources include Seneca the Elder and Quintilian. An Aeolid, who has no health herself, sends it to an Aeolid. The Heroides (The Heroines), or Epistulae Heroidum (Letters of Heroines), is a collection of fifteen epistolary poems composed by Ovid in Latin elegiac couplets and presented as though written by a selection of aggrieved heroines of Greek and Roman mythology in address to their heroic lovers who have in some way mistreated, neglected, or abandoned them. 1) Ovid $5.49. Qui modo Nasonis fueramus quinque libelli, quod Paris et Macareus et quod male gratus Iason Some critics have argued that the passage in, Hinds (1993) 30 f., a suggestion cited by scholars since almost as a matter of reflex. What you're reading—this letter came from your ravished Briseis, What well-being she herself will lack unless you give it her. As Peter E. Knox notes, "[t]here is no consensus about the relative chronology of this [sc. Briseis to Achilles. A further set of six poems, widely known as the Double Heroides and numbered 16 to 21 in modern scholarly editions, follows these individual letters and presents three separate exchanges of paired epistles: one each from a heroic lover to his absent beloved and from the heroine in return. With two books swept away your pain will be lighter. Are now three; their author preferred his work this way over that. trans. Ovid: The Heroides A complete English translation Home; Download; Heroides I-VII. (1999) "First Among Women: Ovid, and the Traditions of ‘Exemplary' Catalogue", in, Kennedy, D. F. (1984) "The Epistolary Mode and the First of Ovid's. Cf. Sed bene consuluit casto deus aequus amori. A translation in rhymed couplets by Daryl Hine appeared in 1991. Strategies of tension (Ovid, Heroides 4) - Volume 41 - Sergio Casali. (1898). While this situation is far from ideal, we hope it will allow those who could not normally travel to Carlisle to participate. has been adduced especially often in this context: quod licet, aut artes teneri profitemur Amoris  Stephen Hinds argues, however, that this list constitutes only a poetic catalogue, in which there was no need for Ovid to have enumerated every individual epistle. For the grid of relationships between VIGOR and VIRGO, see Maltby, R., A lexicon of ancient Latin etymologies (Leeds 1991) s.vv. Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso, 43 BCE –17 CE ), born at Sulmo, studied rhetoric and law at Rome. Acontius writes to Cydippe, claiming that the fever was sent by Diana as a punishment of the breach of the vow Cydippe had made to him in Diana’s temple. The Heroides (The Heroines), or Epistulae Heroidum (Letters of Heroines), is a collection of fifteen epistolary poems composed by Ovid in Latin elegiac couplets and presented as though written by a selection of aggrieved heroines of Greek and Roman mythology in address to their heroic lovers who have in some way mistreated, neglected, or abandoned them. Casali, S. (1992) "Enone, Apollo pastore, e l'amore immedicabile: giochi ovidiani su di un topos elegiaco", ___. And Hippolytus's sire, and Hippolytus himself may read— Though even now you may take little pleasure in reading us, She, who sends this, wishes loving greetings to go to whom it's sent: Hypermestra sends this letter to her one cousin of many, When these letters, from my eager hand, are examined, Showerman, G. (ed. Dating of the poems is difficult, but the composition of the single “Heroides” probably represent some of Ovid‘s earliest poetic efforts, possibly between about 25 and 16 BCE. Cf. Heroides. Dickinson Latin Workshop: Ovid’s Heroides July 16–20, 2020 The Dickinson Summer Latin Workshop will move online this year due to the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath. Ovid claimed to have created an entirely new literary genre of fictional epistolary poems. And what pitiable Dido, holding now the blade unsheathed, e.g. Not through your fault was I claimed by Agamemnon but you failed me Other studies, eschewing direct engagement with this issue in favour of highlighting the more ingenious elements—and thereby demonstrating the high value—of individual poems in the collection, have essentially subsumed the authenticity debate, implicating it through a tacit equation of high literary quality with Ovidian authorship. Ovid survives in his poetry (his tragedy Medea is lost), the most important of which, in probable order of composition, are: Amores (c. 20 b.c.e. (Alas! My right hand holds the pen, a drawn blade the other holds, and the paper lies unrolled in my lap. Letter XIX: Hero to Leander: In response, Hero reiterates the constancy of her love for Leander, but counsels him not to venture out until the sea is calm. Liverpool University Press. Later he did considerable public service there, and otherwise devoted himself to poetry and to society. Aen. Ovid - The Heroides: a new complete downloadable English translation. Knox notes that "[t]his passage ... provides the only external evidence for the date of composition of the Heroides listed here.  On the other hand, some scholars have taken a completely different route, ascribing the whole collection to one or two Ovidian imitators (the catalogue in Am.  Regardless of absolute dating, the evidence nonetheless suggests that the single Heroides represent some of Ovid's earliest poetic efforts. Ovid, Heroides 3. Whether this is true or not, the “Heroides” certainly owe much of their heritage to the founders of Latin love elegy – Gallus, Propertius and Tibullus – as evidenced by their metre and their subject matter. If it is right to complain, my lover and lord, I complain. Written thoughout in elegant elegiac couplets, “The Heroides” were some of Ovid‘s most popular works among his assumed primary audience of Roman women, as well as being highly influential with many later poets. The Heroides were long held in low esteem by literary scholars but, like other works by Ovid, were re-evaluated more positively in the late 20th century. Ovid talks more about his own life than most other Roman poets. (ed.) Sic ubi fata vocant, udis abiectus in herbis versa est in cineres sospite Troia viro. The Heroides consist of 15 poems that have mythological females address their heroic lovers. Letter I: Penelope to Ulysses: Penelope, wife of Ulysses (the Greek hero of the Trojan War, known as Odysseus in Greek), ignorant of the cause of her husband’s absence after the fall of Troy and solicitous for his return, chides him for his long stay, and urges him to come home to his wife and family, as he now has no reasonable excuse for his absence.Letter II: Phyllis to Demophoon: Phyllis, the daughter of Lycurgus of Thrace, complains to Demophoon, the son of King Theseus of Athens (whom she had met after his return from the Trojan War) of his breach of faith in not returning to marry her as he had promised, threatening to bring a violent death on herself if he continues to neglect her.Letter III: Briseis to Achilles: Briseis (who had been carried off by the Greek hero Achilles during the Trojan War, but then stolen away by the jealous Agamemnon) blames Achilles for his over-violent reaction and entreats him to accept Agamemnon’s peace offers and to take up arms against the Trojans again.Letter IV: Phaedra to Hippolytus: Theseus’ wife Phaedra confesses her love to Hippolytus (Theseus’ son by the Amazon Hyppolita) in Theseus’ absence, and tries to inspire him with a mutual tenderness, despite their near relationship.Letter V: Oenone to Paris: The nymph Oenone writes to Paris (son of Priam and Hecuba and a prince of Troy, although brought up secretly by shepherds), complaining that he has unfairly abandoned her, and warning him against the wiles of the beautiful but fickle Helen.Letter VI: Hypsipyle to Jason: Hypsipyle, queen of the isle of Lemnos, complains that Jason had abandoned her, pregnant, during his quest for the Golden Fleece, and warns him against his new mistress, the enchantress Medea.Letter VII: Dido to Aeneas: Queen Dido of Carthage, who has been seized with a violent passion for Aeneas (the Greek hero of the Trojan War), tries to divert him from his intention to leave Carthage in order to pursue his destiny in Italy, and threatens to put an end to her own life if he should refuse her.Letter VIII: Hermione to Orestes: Hermione, promised by her father Menelaus to Achilles’ son Pyrrhus, admonishes her true love Orestes, to whom she was previously betrothed, advising him that she might easily be recovered from the hands of Pyrrhus.Letter IX: Deianeira to Hercules: Deianeira upbraids her unfaithful husband Hercules for his unmanly weakness in pursuing Iole, and tries to awaken in him a sense of his past glory, but, belatedly hearing of the fatal effects of the poisoned shirt she had sent him in her anger, she exclaims against her own rashness and threatens to end her own life.Letter X: Ariadne to Theseus: Ariadne, who had fled with Theseus after the slaying of the Minotaur, accuses him of perfidy and inhumanity after he left her on the isle of Naxos in preference for her sister, Phaedra, and tries to move him to compassion by a mournful representation of her misery.Letter XI: Canace to Macareus: Canace, daughter of Aeolus (the god of the winds) pathetically represents her case to her lover and brother Macareus, whose son she had borne, inveighing against her father’s cruel command that she take her own life as punishment for her immorality.Letter XII: Medea to Jason: The enchantress Medea, who aided Jason in his quest for the Golden Fleece and fled with him, charges him with ingratitude and perfidy after he transfers his love to Creusa of Corinth, and threatens a speedy revenge unless he restores her to her former place in his affections.Letter XIII: Laodamia to Protesilaus: Laodamia, wife of the Greek general Protesilaus, endeavours to dissuade him from engaging in the Trojan War and particularly warns him against being the first Greek to set foot on Trojan ground lest he suffer the prophecies of an oracle.Letter XIV: Hypermestra to Lynceus: Hypermnestra, one of the fifty daughters of Danaus (and the only one who had spared her husband Lynceus from Danaus’ treachery), advises her husband to flee back to his father, Aegyptus, and begs him to come to her assistance before Danaus has her killed for her disobedience.Letter XV: Sappho to Phaon: The Greek poet Sappho, resolved to throw herself off a cliff when her lover Phaon abandons her, expresses her distress and misery and tries to soothe him to softness and a mutual feeling.
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